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The resorption by the oral mucos is depending on the size of the particles.


In animal experiments, researchers1) have found that only particles with a maximum of 400 nm and special surface characteristics can pass through the oral mucosa (see figure on the left). The resorption capacity here is about 75%. If the particles are about 0.5 microns, they can only be resorbed to a very small extent. Larger particles cannot be resorbed through the oral mucosa.


All liquid products produced with PuranoTec are applied to the oral mucosa or sublingual using an active spray. After the application of the product, the ingredients are quickly absorbed. The ingredients of APUXAN are transported to a large extend via the blood vessels of the oral mucosa directly to the superior vena cava and thus into the bloodstream.

However, powder products are only absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract and further metabolised and therefore biochemically altered by the liver.


The resorption by the intestine is depending on the size of the particles.



Particles with a size of 0.1 until 5 microns (100 nm to 5 microns) are taken up by the cells of the intestinal villi (see figure on the left).

At a particle size between 100 and 400 nm, about 85 % of the particles can be resorbed through the intestinal mucosa. This is reduced to approximately 30 % at a particle size of 5 microns. M cells of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine, specialised on the take-up of antigens, can resorb larger particles up to a size of about 10 microns. However, they represent only about 1 % of the absorptive surface of the small intestine. Particles that are larger than 10 microns are no longer resorbed by the intestine. (For comparison, very fine sand grains have a size of about 60 microns.)

Capsule products release their ingredients in the gut, leading to an agglomeration of the powder ingredients with the intestinal fluid. At the end the fluid powder mixture has a particle size much larger than 10 µm.A benchmark test of Apurano confirms this. Therefore, poor water soluble ingredients of capsule products can only be absorbed to a small extend in the intestine. (For more information, visit our website APUXAN2®.)

Products produced with PuranoTec are liquids with a particle size between 100 and 400 nm, thus the human body more easily absorbs them. For more information, visit our website APUXAN2®.

1) J. Reinecke et. al., Unique insights into the intestinal absorption, transit and subsequent biodistribution of polymer-derived microspheres., PNAS USA, August 20, 2013, Vol 110, No. 34, 13803-13808.